Harford Vineyard and Winery

Winemaking Instructions for Juice

Winemaking Instructions for Juice 


  Very important: Please make sure that all equipment is CLEAN & STERILIZED.
**** 76 degrees (F) is recommended for highest quality fermentation. ****


STAGE ONE- Primary Fermentation

Here is a list of thing to make sure you have before the fermentation process begins:
Primary Fermentor with cover, glass secondary fermenter, stopper and fermentation lock, syphon
Sterilizer: Use to STERILIZE all equipment ( can be made Sulfite solution: 1 oz dissolved in ½ gallon water)
Campden Tablets: These tablets are added before fermentation and again before bottling. (also known as potassium metabisulphite or So2)
The Hydrometer: This allows you to determine the alcohol level of your wine and it will help you to track the progress of your wine’s fermentation.
Yeast:  Use the proper yeast for the wine you’re making – don’t guess or use a packet of yeast just because it’s handy
Properly rehydrate yeast before pitching  and Pitch the yeast within 20 minutes of rehydrating it

Day 1 Mixing: Carefully remove the bucket lid by removing safety seal and pry off the lid. Stir the contents gently. Prepare the yeast according to the package directions and gently stir into the juice. Measure and record Specific Gravity to establish a fermentation starting point. ** Place primary fermenter with lid lightly on and in an area that is between 70-80 degrees Fahrenheit.**

Day 2 -10: Stir gently twice daily for 5 minutes. Continue to monitor the yeast activity (bubbling, foaming, etc) that is most active in this stage. Check and record the Specific Gravity (S.G.) readings. Readings decrease as sugar converts into alcohol.

STAGE TWO: Secondary Fermentation

Day 11-20: Check S.G.: if below 1.020 transfer mixture (rack) to secondary carboy and fit airlock. Although yeast activity will slow, the fermentation process will continue in this phase.

Day 20-30: check S.G. if 0.990-0.996 it will be dry, if 1.000 it will be a medium wine, if 1.002 to 1.006 it will be a sweet wine. Allow fermenting longer if needed for desired dryness. You should taste the wine at this stage to find the dryness or sweetness that you desire. When the wine is ready, proceed to stabilization. Remember temperature controls the rate of fermentation, cool temperature may extend days required for fermenting your juice or stop the process prematurely leading to problem wine.

STAGE THREE: Stabilizing

Transfer wine (racking) to the STERILIZED plastic bucket. Add potassium sorbate and potassium metabisulphite, according to measurements indicated on the packaging, into the wine and stir (Note: further fermentation will not occur after this step). Stir three times for ten minutes each, allow to rest several minutes between stirrings to de-gas the wine before final stabilizing and clearing. STERILIZE carboy and refill with stabilized wine to the top (it is essential to fill the carboy to the top with no room for air), fit airlock and place in a cool area. Airlock should fit securely (airtight)

STAGE FOUR: Aging / Bottling

Store the wine in a dry, cool place for 35 to 45 days to allow further stabilization. You should notice the wine clearing and sediment collecting on the bottom of the carboy. Repeat the racking process several times every 30-45 days to achieve maximum clarity if desired. At this point, you may also consider clarifying agents (Sparkaloid or Bentonite) if the wine is still cloudy, or aging materials like oak chips to add  oak flavor. When wine is clear, it is ready for bottling. Make sure bottles and closures are clean and sterilized. Filtering your wine is an option, although recommended. Please feel free to contact us with any questions

Winemaking Instructions for Grape

The Fermentation of Fresh Grape

The fermentation process will slow as the sugar is consumed and in two or three weeks will be essentially complete but depending on the temperature at which the fermentation takes place, the lower temperature the longer to process which means it can take up to a month for the fermentation to finish. You can also stop the progress too soon, known as “stuck fermentation”, leaving residual sugar in the wine.

This is a short overveiw for more detail go to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Winemaking#Crushing_and_primary_fermentation

Here is a list of thing you should have before the fermentation process begins:

Potassium Metabisulphite or Campden Tablets: These tablets are added before fermentation and again before bottling.
Pectic Enzyme: This is added to help break down the fruit during fermentation.
The Hydrometer: This allows you to determine the alcohol level of your wine and it will help you to track the progress of your wine’s fermentation.
Yeast Energizer: Provides essential minerals, trace nutrients and vitamins for yeast growth and metabolism during fermentation.
Yeast Nutrient: Add to fermentation to increase yeast activity.
Yeast: Use the proper yeast for the wine you’re making – don’t guess or use a packet of yeast just because it’s handy

Stage 1 – Crushing and primary fermentation

Crushing is the process of gently squeezing the berries and breaking the skins to start to liberate the contents of the berries.

During the primary fermentation, the yeast cells feed on the sugars in the must and multiply, producing carbon dioxide gas and alcohol. The temperature during the fermentation affects both the taste of the end product, as well as the speed of the fermentation.

For red wines, the temperature is typically 22 to 25 °C, and for white wines 15 to 18 °C.
For every gram of sugar that is converted, about half a gram of alcohol is produced, so to achieve a 12% alcohol concentration, the must should contain about 24% sugars.

Yeast is normally already present on the grapes, often visible as a powdery appearance of the grapes. The fermentation can be done with this natural yeast, but since this can give unpredictable results depending on the exact types of yeast that are present, cultured yeast is often added to the must. One of the main problems with the use of wild ferments is the failure for the fermentation to go to completion, that is some sugar remains unfermented.This can make the wine sweet when a dry wine is desired. Frequently wild ferments lead to the production of unpleasant acetic acid (vinegar) production as a by product.

Once fermentation begins, the grape skins are pushed to the surface by carbon dioxide gases released in the fermentation process. This layer of skins and other solids is known as the cap. As the skins are the source of the tannins, the cap needs to be mixed through the liquid each day, or “punched,”

Malolactic fermentation is carried out by bacteria which metabolize malic acid and produce lactic acid and carbon dioxide. The process is used in most red wines and is discretionary for white wines.This fermentation is often initiated by inoculation with desired bacteria.

Stage 2 – Pressing

Pressing is the act of applying pressure to grapes or pomace in order to separate juice or wine from grapes and grape skins. Pressing is not always a necessary act in winemaking; if grapes are crushed there is a considerable amount of juice immediately liberated (called free-run juice) that can be used for vinification. Typically this free-run juice is of a higher quality than the press juice. However, most wineries do use presses in order to increase their production (gallons) per ton, as pressed juice can represent between 15%-30% of the total juice volume from the grape.

With red wines, the must is pressed after primary fermentation, which separates the skins and other solid matter from the liquid. With white wine, the liquid is separated from the must before fermentation . With rose, the skins may be kept in contact for a shorter period to give color to the wine, in that case the must may be pressed as well.

Stage 3 – Secondary Fermentation and ageing

After a period in which the wine stands or ages, the wine is separated from the dead yeast and any solids that remained (called lees), and transferred to a new container where any additional fermentation may take place.

Whether the wine is aging in carboys,tanks or barrels, tests are run periodically in a laboratory to check the status of the wine. Common tests include °Brix, pH, titratable acidity, residual sugar, free or available sulfur, total sulfur, volatile acidity and percent alcohol. These tests are often performed throughout the making of the wine as well as prior to bottling. In response to the results, a winemaker can then decide if more sulfur needs to be added or other slight adjustments before it is bottled.
During the secondary fermentation and aging process, which takes three(3) to six(6) months, the fermentation continues very slowly. The wine is kept under an airlock to protect the wine from oxidation. Proteins from the grape are broken down and the remaining yeast cells and other fine particles from the grapes are allowed to settle. Potassium bitartrate will also precipitate, a process which can be enhanced by cold stabilization to prevent the appearance of (harmless) tartrate crystals after bottling. The result of these processes is that the originally cloudy wine becomes clear. The wine can be racked during this process to remove the lees.

Stage 4 – Botting and Filtration

Filtration in winemaking is used to accomplish two objectives, clarification and microbial stabilization. In clarification, large particles that affect the visual appearance of the wine are removed. In microbial stabilization, organisms that affect the stability of the wine are removed therefore reducing the likelihood of re-fermentation or spoilage.

The process of clarification is concerned with the removal of particles; those larger than 5 -10 micrometers for coarse polishing, particles larger than 1 – 4 micrometers for clarifying or polishing. Microbial stabilization requires a filtration of at least 0.65 micrometers. However, filtration at this level may lighten a wines color and body. Microbial stabilization does not imply sterility. It simply means that a significant amount of yeast and bacteria have been removed.

A final dose of sulfite is added to help preserve the wine and prevent unwanted fermentation in the bottle. The wine bottles then are traditionally sealed with a cork, although alternative wine closures such as synthetic corks and screwcaps, which are less subject to cork taint, are becoming increasingly popular. The final step is adding a capsule  to the top of the bottle which is then heated for a tight seal.